Audio description – for the blind and visually impaired, this is a narrated description of the visual elements of a media or art product and is inserted into natural breaks in the dialogue and soundtrack.
Audio-visual engineering – is the use of technology to manage the sound, lighting and images for the creation of audio and visual content.
Audio-visual translation (AVT) – this term describes the tasks involved in localizing any audio-visual content, be it a marketing video, a movie, training video and so on, usually incorporating a different language.
Automated text-to-speech – software that can read a written text and convert it to spoken language, usually with the help of AI.
Automatic speech recognition (ASR) – software that can understand human speech and reproduce it as text or respond to it as a command. Using AI-driven technology called natural language processing, ASR can create real-time captions but as yet isn’t always accurate.
Captioning – on-screen text of the audio elements of a video with added description for the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Open captions are imbedded into the video and cannot be switched off.
Closed Captioning (CC) – on-screen text description of the audio elements of a video. They include added information of what can be seen and heard beyond the dialogue and cater for the deaf and heard-of-hearing, including speaker identification. Closed captions require a decoder to be viewed and can be switched off.
Desk-top publishing (DTP) localization – DTP is the process of using software to design layouts for brochures, leaflets, newsletters, packaging ad so on. This requires localization because some languages take up more space, read right to left, or local expectations for the content type are different.
Dubbing (dubs) – the translated dialogue of a film or video spoken by new actors and often accompanied by lip-synching where the translated dialogue is timed to fit with the original mouth movements of the on-screen actors.
Editing – the action of organizing different snippets of film or sound and creating a continuous version of the content that tells the story as intended.
Multimedia – the use of varied forms of communication to relay information or entertainment. It includes combinations of audio and video, photographs, text, animation, graphics etc.
Script translation – converting the text of the movie or video, including all dialogue and scene descriptions into a new language. This requires not only expert linguistic knowledge but an extensive understanding of cinematography and technical terminology.
Sign language – a way of communicating that uses gestures not words or sounds. Sign language is often the first language of people who are deaf.
Subtitling (subs) – on-screen text of the spoken or narrated elements of the audio-visual material, usually in a different language to the original.
Subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH) – these are subtitles with added textual information about the audio elements of a video, including a description of the background sounds and speaker identification. This is also known as captioning.
Transcreation – is a technique used in translation when in order to transfer the message of the content into a new language in a new culture, it is preferrable to create material from scratch to suit this audience. It is commonly used in marketing.
Transcription – is the action of creating the written format of spoken dialogue in the same language. It is often the first step before translation for subtitling can be done. As well as in a multimedia context, transcription may also take place in a meeting or conference setting.
Video post-production – the quality assurance tasks towards the end of the process often including final editing to sound and image that check and finalize the accuracy and consistency of the content. For translation this should mean ensuring that the original meaning of the content has been successfully transferred into a new language.
Voice recognition –this technology although similar to ASR is not the same and is primarily concerned with recognizing an individual person’s voice and responding to commands. Digital assistants in smart speakers and smart phones use voice recognition software.
Voice-over (for translation) – this is when a voice is recorded in another language over the original which can be heard in the background. Also called UN-style voice-over, it is a technique frequently used in news videos or interviews.